There are various ways of separating materials. They include mechanical methods such as sheering and thermal methods such as oxyfuel, plasma and laser cutting
In the case of oxyfuel, plasma and laser cutting, thermal energy is used to anneal materials up to ignition, melting or evaporation temperatures.
Oxyfuel cutting and laser cutting with oxygen use the exothermic energy of the oxygen reaction in the process. Flame and laser beam anneal material only unitl ignition temperature is reached. The oxygen jet burns the material and blows out melt and slag.
The cutting speed depends on the purity of the oxygen and the shape of the cutting gas jet. High purity oxygen, optimised nozzle design and suitable gas supply means high productivity.
In plasma cutting and laser cutting with nitrogen, the material is annealed up to melting temperatures and the cutting gas blows out the melt. Nature of cutting gases needs to be adapted to application for best performance.
Lasers can also be used to evaporate materials such as wood or plastics. Evaporation of metallic material is used for example in laser drilling or piercing of the starting hole. Gases suppress ignition of flammable materials and support material removal during drilling and piercing.